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BackgroundEnteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A, is a major public health problem in low and middle-income countries. Moderate sensitivity and scalability of current methods likely underestimate enteric fever burden. Determining the serological responses to organism-specific antigens may improve incidence measures.MethodsPlasma samples were collected from blood culture-confirmed enteric fever patients, blood culture-negative febrile patients over the course of three months and afebrile community controls. A panel of 17 Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A antigens was purified and used to determine antigen-specific antibody responses by indirect ELISAs.ResultsThe antigen-specific longitudinal antibody responses were comparable between enteric fever patients, patients with blood culture-negative febrile controls, and afebrile community controls for most antigens. However, we found that IgG responses against STY1479 (YncE), STY1886 (CdtB), STY1498 (HlyE) and the serovar-specific O2 and O9 antigens were greatly elevated over a three-month follow up period in S. Typhi/S. Paratyphi A patients compared to controls, suggesting seroconversion.ConclusionsWe identified a set of antigens as good candidates to demonstrate enteric fever exposure. These targets can be used in combination to develop more sensitive and scalable approaches to enteric fever surveillance and generate invaluable epidemiological data for informing vaccine policies.

Original publication




Journal article


The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date



Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology and Infectious Disease, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom.