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ObjectivesTo identify and summarize existing global knowledge gaps on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in human health, focusing on the World Health Organization (WHO) bacterial priority pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and selected fungi.MethodsWe conducted a scoping review of gray and peer-reviewed literature, published in English from January 2012 through December 2021, that reported on the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care of drug-resistant infections. We extracted relevant knowledge gaps and, through an iterative process, consolidated those into thematic research questions.ResultsOf 8409 publications screened, 1156 were included, including 225 (19.5%) from low- and middle-income countries. A total of 2340 knowledge gaps were extracted, in the following areas: antimicrobial research and development, AMR burden and drivers, resistant tuberculosis, antimicrobial stewardship, diagnostics, infection prevention and control, antimicrobial consumption and use data, immunization, sexually transmitted infections, AMR awareness and education, policies and regulations, fungi, water sanitation and hygiene, and foodborne diseases. The knowledge gaps were consolidated into 177 research questions, including 78 (44.1%) specifically relevant to low- and middle-income countries and 65 (36.7%) targeting vulnerable populations.ConclusionThis scoping review presents the most comprehensive compilation of AMR-related knowledge gaps to date, informing a priority-setting exercise to develop the WHO Global AMR Research Agenda for the human health sector.

Original publication




Journal article


International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases

Publication Date





142 - 149


Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Indonesia, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia; Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address: