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BackgroundKawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limiting inflammatory vasculitis affecting predominantly medium-sized arteries, particularly the coronary arteries. A number of recent studies conducted in different European countries have demonstrated alarmingly high coronary complications despite treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). These high complication rates now emphasize the need for an urgent reappraisal of IVIG as the sole primary therapeutic agent for KD. The Kawasaki disease CAA prevention (KD-CAAP) trial will test the hypothesis that immediate adjunctive corticosteroid treatment to standard of care IVIG and aspirin will reduce coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) rates in unselected KD patients across Europe.MethodsKD-CAAP is a multicentre, randomised, controlled, open-label, blinded endpoint assessed trial that will be conducted across Europe supported by the conect4children pan-European clinical trials network. Patients with KD who satisfy the eligibility criteria will be randomised (1:1) to receive either oral prednisolone 2 mg/kg/day plus standard of care therapy IVIG (2 g/kg) and aspirin (40 mg/kg/day); or IVIG and aspirin alone. Further management is dictated by temperature and C-reactive protein (CRP) responses. Co-primary outcomes are as follows: (i) any CAA within the 3 months of trial follow-up; (ii) average estimate of maximum coronary Z-score at weeks 1, 2 and 6 adjusting for rescue treatment. Additional outcomes will be assessed including cost effectiveness, quality of life, corticosteroid toxicity and other safety outcomes.DiscussionSeveral recent studies have indicated that coronary complications associated with KD across Europe are much higher than early trials of IVIG had initially suggested. KD-CAAP directly addresses this issue by exploring the therapeutic benefit of adjunctive corticosteroids in unselected KD cases. If we find that corticosteroids prevent CAA and are safe, this is a cheap and widely available intervention that could be implemented immediately for the benefit of children.Trial registrationISRCTN71987471- March 31, 2020; Eudract 2019-004433-17.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK.


Coronary Vessels, Humans, Aneurysm, Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome, Aspirin, Adrenal Cortex Hormones, Immunoglobulins, Intravenous, Quality of Life, Adolescent, Child, Child, Preschool, Infant, Multicenter Studies as Topic, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic