Genomic Evolution and Transcriptional Changes in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer into Neuroendocrine and Ductal Carcinoma Types
Rao SR., Protheroe A., Cerundolo L., Maldonado-Perez D., Browning L., Lamb AD., Bryant RJ., Mills IG., Woodcock DJ., Hamdy FC., Tomlinson IPM., Verrill C.
Prostate cancer is typically of acinar adenocarcinoma type but can occasionally present as neuroendocrine and/or ductal type carcinoma. These are associated with clinically aggressive disease, and the former often arises on a background of androgen deprivation therapy, although it can also arise de novo. Two prostate cancer cases were sequenced by exome capture from archival tissue. Case 1 was de novo small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and ductal adenocarcinoma with three longitudinal samples over 5 years. Case 2 was a single time point after the development of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma. Case 1 showed whole genome doubling in all samples and focal amplification of AR in all samples except the first time point. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a common ancestry for ductal and small cell carcinoma. Case 2 showed 13q loss (involving RB1) in both adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma regions, and 3p gain, 4p loss, and 17p loss (involving TP53) in the latter. By using highly curated samples, we demonstrate for the first time that small-cell neuroendocrine and ductal prostatic carcinoma can have a common ancestry. We highlight whole genome doubling in a patient with prostate cancer relapse, reinforcing its poor prognostic nature.