Endoscopic characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in inflammatory bowel disease: systematic review in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging.
Cassinotti A., Parravicini M., Chapman TP., Balzarini M., Canova L., Segato S., Zadro V., Travis S., Segato S.
BackgroundCurrent guidelines strongly recommend the use of validated classifications to support optical diagnosis of lesions with advanced endoscopic imaging in the lower gastrointestinal tract. However, the optimal strategy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still a matter of debate.ObjectivesTo analyze the accuracy of endoscopic classifications or single predictors for in vivo lesion characterization during endoscopic surveillance of IBD with advanced endoscopic imaging.DesignSystematic review.Data sources and methodsMedline and PubMed were used to extract all studies which focused on lesion characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions in IBD. The diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic classifications and single endoscopic predictors for lesion characterization were analyzed according to type of patients, lesions, and technology used. When available, the rates of true and false positives or negatives for neoplasia were pooled and the sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated.ResultsWe included 35 studies (2789 patients; 5925 lesions - 1149 neoplastic). Advanced endoscopic imaging included dye-based chromoendoscopy, virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE), magnification and high-definition endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), endocytoscopy, and autofluorescence imaging. The Kudo classification of pit patterns was most frequently used, with pooled SE 83%, SP 83%, and NPV 95%. The endoscopic criteria with the highest accuracy, with minimum SE ⩾ 90%, SP ⩾ 80%, and NPV ⩾ 90% were: the Kudo-IBD classification used with VCE (Fuji Intelligent Color Enhancement and i-SCAN); combined irregular surface and vascular patterns used with narrow band imaging; the Mainz classification used with CLE. Multiple clinical and technical factors were found to influence the accuracy of optical diagnosis in IBD.ConclusionNo single endoscopic factor has yet shown sufficient accuracy for lesion characterization in IBD surveillance. Conventional classifications developed in the non-IBD setting have lower accuracy in IBD. The use of new classifications adapted for IBD (Kudo-IBD), and new technologies based on in vivo microscopic analysis show promise.