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Many aspects of Controlled Human Infection Models (CHIMs, also known as human challenge studies and human infection studies) have been discussed extensively, including Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) production of the challenge agent, CHIM ethics, environmental safety in CHIM, recruitment, community engagement, advertising and incentives, pre-existing immunity, and clinical, immunological, and microbiological endpoints. The fourth CHIM meeting focused on regulation of CHIM studies, bringing together scientists and regulators from high-, middle-, and low-income countries, to discuss barriers and hurdles in CHIM regulation. Valuable initiatives for regulation of CHIMs have already been undertaken but further capacity building remains essential. The Wellcome Considerations document is a good starting point for further discussions.

Original publication




Conference paper

Publication Date



European Medicines Agency, Netherlands. Electronic address: