Bone marrow transplantation from a pediatric donor with a high frequency of cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells.
Komatsu H., Kogawa K., Nonoyama S., Inui A., Sogo T., Fujisawa T., Klenerman P.
A recent study reported that quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in the graft and monitoring of these T cells might identify hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-recipients at the risk for progressive CMV infection. A 6-year-old girl underwent bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling with a very high frequency of CMV specific tetramer-positive CD8+ T-cells. CMV-specific T-cell immunity was prospectively evaluated using a peptide (HLA-A2, NLVPMVATV). Tetramer assay showed that the frequency of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells of the donor in the peripheral blood was 5.3%, higher than average amongst young children. The frequency of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells of the donor in the graft was 3.7% of CD8+ T-cells. Before transplantation, the frequency of CMV specific CD8+ T cells of the recipient was 0.1% in the peripheral blood. Surprisingly, the frequency of CMV specific CD8+ T cells increased up to 30% of CD8+ T-cells at day 27 after transplantation. IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay showed the recipient-T cells had strong responses to the A2-specific NLVPMVATV peptide. Although the phenotypic pattern of the CMV-specific T cells of the recipient was different from those of the donor before transplantation, the phenotype of the donor-derived cells retained their original phenotype in the recipient after transplantation. These finding suggested that active transferred immunity from the graft with a high frequency of CMV-specific CTL could induce a rapid reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell mediated immunity in pediatric HLA-identical allogenetic bone marrow transplantation. The screening of peripheral blood using HLA-peptide tetramer staining might be beneficial to select donors.