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Recombinant native-like HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimers are used in candidate vaccines aimed at inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies. While state-of-the-art SOSIP or single-chain Env designs can be expressed as native-like trimers, undesired monomers, dimers and malformed trimers that elicit non-neutralizing antibodies are also formed, implying that these designs could benefit from further modifications for gene-based vaccination approaches. Here, we describe the triple tandem trimer (TTT) design, in which three Env protomers are genetically linked in a single open reading frame and express as native-like trimers. Viral vectored Env TTT induced similar neutralization titers but with a higher proportion of trimer-specific responses. The TTT design was also applied to generate influenza hemagglutinin (HA) trimers without the need for trimerization domains. Additionally, we used TTT to generate well-folded chimeric Env and HA trimers that harbor protomers from three different strains. In summary, the TTT design is a useful platform for the design of HIV-1 Env and influenza HA immunogens for a multitude of vaccination strategies.

Original publication




Journal article


NPJ Vaccines

Publication Date