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Background In low- and middle-income countries twin births have a high risk of complications partly due to barriers to accessing hospital care. This study compares pregnancy outcomes, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of twin to singleton pregnancy in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Myanmar border. Methods A retrospective review of medical records of all singleton and twin pregnancies delivered or followed at antenatal clinics of the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit from 1986 to 2020, with a known outcome and estimated gestational age. Logistic regression was done to compare the odds of maternal and neonatal outcomes between twin and singleton pregnancies. Results Between 1986 and 2020 this unstable and migratory population had a recorded outcome of pregnancy of 28 weeks or more for 597 twin births and 59,005 singleton births. Twinning rate was low and stable (<9 per 1,000) over 30 years. Three-quarters (446/597) of the twin pregnancies and 96% (56,626/59,005) of singletons birthed vaginally. During pregnancy, a significantly higher proportion of twin pregnancies compared to singleton had pre-eclampsia (7.0% versus 1.7%), gestational hypertension (9.9% versus 3.9%) and eclampsia (1.0% versus 0.2%). The stillbirth rate of twin 1 and twin 2 was higher compared to singletons: twin 1 25 per 1,000 (15/595), twin 2 64 per 1,000 (38/595) and singletons 12 per 1,000 (680/ 58,781). The estimated odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) for stillbirth of twin 1 and twin 2 compared to singletons was 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.6) and 5.8 (95% CI 4.1-8.1); and maternal death 2.0 (0.95-11.4), respectively, As expected most perinatal deaths were 28 to <32 week gestation. Conclusion In this fragile setting where access to hospital care is difficult, three in four twins birthed vaginally. Twin pregnancies have a higher maternal morbidity and perinatal mortality, especially the second twin, compared to singleton pregnancies.

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