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Diagnosing and treating chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are key interventions to support progress towards elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030. Although nucleos/tide analogue (NA) therapy is typically highly effective, challenges remain for viral load (VL) suppression, including medication access, incomplete adherence and drug resistance. We present a case of a long-term HBV and HIV coinfected adult prescribed with sequential NA therapy regimens, with episodes of breakthrough viraemia. Multiple factors contribute to virological breakthrough, including exposure to old NA agents, initial high HBV VL, therapy interruptions, intercurrent illnesses and potential contribution from resistance mutations. The case underscores the importance of individualised treatment approaches and adherence support in achieving HBV suppression. Furthermore, it emphasises the need for improved clinical pathways addressing education, support and access to care, particularly for marginalised populations. Comprehensive data collection inclusive of under-represented individuals is crucial for maintaining retention in the care cascade and informing effective interventions.

Original publication




Journal article


Sexually transmitted infections

Publication Date



Nuffield Departmnet of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK