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The phenotypic impact of compound heterozygous (CH) variation has not been investigated at the population scale. We phased rare variants (MAF ∼0.001%) in the UK Biobank (UKBB) exome-sequencing data to characterize recessive effects in 175,587 individuals across 311 common diseases. A total of 6.5% of individuals carry putatively damaging CH variants, 90% of which are only identifiable upon phasing rare variants (MAF 

Original publication




Journal article


Cell Genom

Publication Date



bi-allelic, compound heterozygosity, longtudinal, phasing, population genetics, recessive