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Variable major lipoprotein (Vmp) is a major tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-inducing component of Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of louse-borne relapsing fever. B. recurrentis Vmp rapidly stimulates nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the human monocyte-like cell line MonoMac 6. By overexpressing disabled mutant IkappaBalpha in MonoMac 6 cells cotransfected with a reporter gene, we provide evidence that NF-kappaB is essential for the transcriptional activation of TNF in this system.


Journal article


Infect Immun

Publication Date





5447 - 5449


Bacterial Proteins, Borrelia, Cell Line, Cytokines, Humans, NF-kappa B, RNA, Messenger, Transcriptional Activation, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha