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Studies of the fine-scale spatial epidemiology of malaria consistently identify malaria hotspots, comprising clusters of homesteads at high transmission intensity. These hotspots sustain transmission, and may be targeted by malaria-control programmes. Here we describe the spatial relationship between the location of Anopheles larval sites and human malaria infection in a cohort study of 642 children, aged 1-10-years-old. Our data suggest that proximity to larval sites predict human malaria infection, when homesteads are upwind of larval sites, but not when homesteads are downwind of larval sites. We conclude that following oviposition, female Anophelines fly upwind in search for human hosts and, thus, malaria transmission may be disrupted by targeting vector larval sites in close proximity, and downwind to malaria hotspots.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Commun

Publication Date





Animals, Anopheles, Child, Child, Preschool, Cohort Studies, Female, Humans, Incidence, Infant, Insect Vectors, Kenya, Larva, Malaria, Male, Mosquito Control, Multivariate Analysis, Oviposition, Poisson Distribution, Sporozoites, Weather, Wind