Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific immune responses in primates upon sequential immunization with adenoviral vaccine carriers of human and simian serotypes.
Reyes-Sandoval A., Fitzgerald JC., Grant R., Roy S., Xiang ZQ., Li Y., Gao GP., Wilson JM., Ertl HCJ.
Two triple immunization vaccine regimens with adenoviral vectors with E1 deleted expressing Gag of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 were tested for induction of T- and B-cell-mediated-immune responses in mice and in nonhuman primates. The vaccine carriers were derived from distinct serotypes of human and simian adenoviruses that fail to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies expected to dampen the effect of booster immunizations. Both triple immunization regimens induced unprecedented frequencies of gamma interferon-producing CD8(+) T cells to Gag in mice and monkeys that remained remarkably stable over time. In addition, monkeys developed Gag-specific interleukin-2-secreting T cells, presumably belonging to the CD4(+) T-cell subset, and antibodies to both Gag and the adenoviral vaccine carriers.