Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and viral turnover in HIV type 1 infection.
Klenerman P., Phillips RE., Rinaldo CR., Wahl LM., Ogg G., May RM., McMichael AJ., Nowak MA.
To understand the role of the immune system in limiting HIV type 1 replication, it is critical to know to what extent the rapid turnover of productively infected cells is caused by viral cytopathicity or by immune-mediated lysis. We show that uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells of many patients contain cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that lyse target cells-at plausible peripheral blood mononuclear cell-to-target ratios-with half-lives of less than 1 day. In 23 patients with CD4 counts ranging from 10 to 900 per microliter, the average rate of CTL-mediated lysis corresponds to a target cell half-life of 0.7 day. We develop mathematical models to calculate the turnover rate of infected cells subjected to immune-mediated lysis and viral cytopathicity and to estimate the fraction of cells that are killed by CTL as opposed to virus. The models provide new interpretations of drug treatment dynamics and explain why the observed rate of virus decline is roughly constant for different patients. We conclude that in HIV type 1 infection, CTL-mediated lysis can reduce virus load by limiting virus production, with small effects on the half-life of infected cells.