Risk of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in different ecological zones of Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.
Carrique Mas JJ., Widdowson MA., Cuéllar AM., Ribera H., Walker AR.
A cross-sectional study was done of seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina, B.bovis, and Anaplasma marginale in cattle from eastern Bolivia, to characterise the risk of tick-borne disease in three ecological zones. Nineteen farms were sampled in the subtropical humid zone, 13 in the dry subtropical zone and nine in the lower western valleys of the Andean massif. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used. All three pathogens were widespread. For B. bovis, seroprevalences were high (75-78%) in the two subtropical zones which thus had low risk of disease from this infection; but the western valleys were endemically unstable with higher risk. For B. bigemina, seroprevalences were lower (24-57%) in the two subtropical zones and thus these areas were endemically unstable for disease from this infection. However, the seroprevalence of B. bigemina in the western valleys was too low (13%) for risk of disease in susceptible cattle to be considered high. For A. marginale, the seroprevalences in the two subtropical zones were low (19-32%) and very low (6%) in the western valleys suggesting all these zones were endemically unstable for anaplasmosis. Data for individual farms were analysed for risk of both forms of babesiosis; this showed low risk of disease in the subtropical humid zone, higher risk in the dry subtropical zone and variable risk in the western valleys.