Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The TNF locus on chromosome 6p21 encodes a family of proteins with key roles in the immune response whose dysregulation leads to severe disease. Transcriptional regulation is important, with cell type and stimulus-specific enhancer complexes involving the proximal TNF promoter. We show how quantitative chromatin profiling across a 34 kb region spanning the TNF locus has allowed us to identify a number of novel DNase hypersensitive sites and characterize more distant regulatory elements. We demonstrate DNase hypersensitive sites corresponding to the lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) promoter regions, a CpG island in exon 4 of lymphotoxin beta (LTB), the 3' end of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-like 1 (NFKBIL1) and 3.4 kb upstream of LTA. These sites co-localize to highly conserved DNA sequences and show evidence of cell type specificity when lymphoblastoid, Jurkat, U937, HeLa and HEK293T cell lines are analysed using Southern blotting. For Jurkat T cells, we define histone modifications across the locus. Peaks of acetylated histone H3 and H4, together with tri-methyl K4 of histone H3, correspond to hypersensitive sites, notably in exon 4 of LTB. We provide evidence of a functional role for an intergenic DNase I hypersensitive site distal to LTA in Jurkat cells based on reporter gene analysis, with evidence of recruitment of upstream stimulatory factors (USF) transcription factors.

Original publication




Journal article


Nucleic Acids Res

Publication Date





4845 - 4862


Base Sequence, Blotting, Southern, Cell Line, Chromatin, Conserved Sequence, DNA Footprinting, Deoxyribonuclease I, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Histones, Humans, Jurkat Cells, Lymphotoxin-alpha, Phylogeny, Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional, Tumor Necrosis Factors