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A sensitive and specific bioanalytical method for determination of piperaquine in urine by automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography (LC) has been developed and validated. Buffered urine samples (containing internal standard) were loaded onto mixed phase (cation-exchange and octylsilica) SPE columns using an ASPEC XL SPE robot. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Chromolith Performance RP-18e (100 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.) LC column with phosphate buffer (pH 2.5; 0.1 mol/L)-acetonitrile (92:8, v/v). Piperaquine was analysed at a flow rate of 3 mL/min with UV detection at 347 nm. A linear regression model on log-log transformed data was used for quantification. Within-day precision for piperaquine was 1.3% at 5000 ng/mL and 6.6% at 50 ng/mL. Between-day precision for piperaquine was 3.7% at 5000 ng/mL and 7.2% at 50 ng/mL. Total-assay precision for piperaquine over 4 days using five replicates each day (n = 20) was 4.0%, 5.2% and 9.8% at 5000, 500 and 50 ng/mL, respectively. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was set to 3 ng/mL using 1 mL of urine, which could be lowered to 0.33 ng/mL when using 9 mL of urine and an increased injection volume.

Original publication




Journal article


J Pharm Biomed Anal

Publication Date





213 - 218


Animals, Chemistry, Pharmaceutical, Chromatography, Liquid, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Models, Chemical, Quality Control, Quinolines, Regression Analysis, Reproducibility of Results, Technology, Pharmaceutical, Time Factors, Ultraviolet Rays, Urinalysis