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In schistosomiasis control, there is a need to geographically target treatment to populations at high risk of morbidity. This paper evaluates alternative sampling strategies for surveys of Schistosoma mansoni to target mass drug administration in Kenya and Ethiopia. Two main designs are considered: lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) of children from all schools; and a geostatistical design that samples a subset of schools and uses semi-variogram analysis and spatial interpolation to predict prevalence in the remaining unsurveyed schools. Computerized simulations are used to investigate the performance of sampling strategies in correctly classifying schools according to treatment needs and their cost-effectiveness in identifying high prevalence schools. LQAS performs better than geostatistical sampling in correctly classifying schools, but at a cost with a higher cost per high prevalence school correctly classified. It is suggested that the optimal surveying strategy for S. mansoni needs to take into account the goals of the control programme and the financial and drug resources available.

Original publication




Journal article


Int Health

Publication Date





165 - 175