Molecular typing of multiple-antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from Vietnam: application to acute and relapse cases of typhoid fever.
Wain J., Hien TT., Connerton P., Ali T., Parry CM., Chinh NT., Vinh H., Phuong CX., Ho VA., Diep TS., Farrar JJ., White NJ., Dougan G.
The rate of multiple-antibiotic resistance is increasing among Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains in Southeast Asia. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and other typing methods were used to analyze drug-resistant and -susceptible organisms isolated from patients with typhoid fever in several districts in southern Vietnam. Multiple PFGE and phage typing patterns were detected, although individual patients were infected with strains of a single type. The PFGE patterns were stable when the S. enterica serovar Typhi strains were passaged many times in vitro on laboratory medium. Paired S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates recovered from the blood and bone marrow of individual patients exhibited similar PFGE patterns. Typing of S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates from patients with relapses of typhoid indicated that the majority of relapses were caused by the same S. enterica serovar Typhi strain that was isolated during the initial infection. However, some individuals were infected with distinct and presumably newly acquired S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates.