Moorthy V., Hill AVS.
Malaria kills one child in Africa every 30 s. After summarising the burden of malaria, the life-cycle of this parasite in humans and female Anopheles mosquitoes is outlined. Important differences between natural immunity and that induced by current candidate vaccines are discussed. In the main part of the review, the recent rapid expansion in evaluation of candidate malaria vaccines in clinical trials across the world is discussed. Subunit vaccine technologies are progressing rapidly with new delivery systems, vectors and antigens under evaluation as well as new polyepitope approaches. Combination vaccination regimens, improved adjuvants and genetic engineering of antigens are all improving the immunogenicity of candidate vaccines. We also discuss particular difficulties in vaccination against malaria, the conduct of field trials of malaria vaccines in non-industrialised countries and the need for even greater co-operation between researchers. Finally, the important concept of iterative vaccine development is raised and the prospects for effective malaria vaccination are discussed.