Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africa: a case-control and family study.
Bornman L., Campbell SJ., Fielding K., Bah B., Sillah J., Gustafson P., Manneh K., Lisse I., Allen A., Sirugo G., Sylla A., Aaby P., McAdam KPWJ., Bah-Sow O., Bennett S., Lienhardt C., Hill AVS.
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been implicated in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB), but reports have been inconsistent. We genotyped the VDR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI in 1139 case patients and control subjects and 382 families from The Gambia, Guinea, and Guinea-Bissau. The transmission-disequilibrium test on family data showed a significant global association of TB with SNP combinations FokI-BsmI-ApaI-TaqI and FokI-ApaI that were driven by the increased transmission to affected offspring of the FokI F and ApaI A alleles in combination. The ApaI A allele was also transmitted to affected offspring significantly more often than expected. Case-control analysis showed no statistically significant association between TB and VDR variants. BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI showed strong linkage disequilibrium. The significance of the family-based associations found between TB and FokI-BsmI-ApaI-TaqI and the FA haplotype supports a role for VDR haplotypes, rather than individual genotypes, in susceptibility to TB.