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Guidelines for travellers on malaria chemoprophylaxis, the altitude limits of dominant vector species, climate suitability for malaria transmission and human population density thresholds have been used to map the crude spatial limits of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission on a global scale. These maps suggest that 2.510 and 2.596 billion people were at possible risk of transmission of P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, in 2005. Globally, 75 per cent of humans who are exposed to P. falciparum risk live in only ten countries.

Original publication




Journal article


Trends Parasitol

Publication Date





353 - 358


Animals, Climate, Culicidae, Global Health, Humans, Insect Vectors, Malaria, Population Density, Risk Factors, Travel