Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Malarial anemia is a global public health problem and is characterized by a low reticulocyte response in the presence of life-threatening hemolysis. Although cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), can suppress erythropoiesis, the grossly abnormal bone marrow morphology indicates that other factors may contribute to ineffective erythropoiesis. We hypothesized that the cytotoxic hemozoin (Hz) residues from digested hemoglobin (Hb) significantly contribute to abnormal erythropoiesis. Here, we show that not only isolated Hz, but also delipidated Hz, inhibits erythroid development in vitro in the absence of TNF-alpha. However, when added to cultures, TNF-alpha synergizes with Hz to inhibit erythropoiesis. Furthermore, we show that, in children with malarial anemia, the proportion of circulating monocytes containing Hz is associated with anemia (P < .001) and reticulocyte suppression (P = .009), and that this is independent of the level of circulating cytokines, including TNF-alpha. Plasma Hz is also associated with anemia (P < .001) and reticulocyte suppression (P = .02). Finally, histologic examination of the bone marrow of children who have died from malaria shows that pigmented erythroid and myeloid precursors are associated with the degree of abnormal erythroid development. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence for inhibition of erythropoiesis by Hz.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





2569 - 2577


Anemia, Animals, Child, Child, Preschool, Cytokines, Erythrocytes, Erythropoiesis, Hemeproteins, Humans, In Vitro Techniques, Infant, Malaria, Falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum, Reticulocyte Count, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha