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Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS), a non-heme iron oxidase central to penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthesis, catalyzes an energetically demanding chemical transformation to produce isopenicillin N from the tripeptide delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (ACV). We describe the synthesis of two cyclopropyl-containing tripeptide analogues, delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-beta-methyl-d-cyclopropylglycine and delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipoyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-cyclopropylglycine, designed as probes for the mechanism of IPNS. We have solved the X-ray crystal structures of these substrates in complex with IPNS and propose a revised mechanism for the IPNS-mediated turnover of these compounds. Relative to the previously determined IPNS-Fe(II)-ACV structure, key differences exist in substrate orientation and water occupancy, which allow for an explanation of the differences in reactivity of these substrates.

Original publication

DOI

10.1021/bi062314q

Type

Journal article

Journal

Biochemistry

Publication Date

24/04/2007

Volume

46

Pages

4755 - 4762

Keywords

Aspergillus nidulans, Crystallization, Crystallography, X-Ray, Models, Molecular, Oligopeptides, Oxidoreductases