Innate immune responses in primary HIV-1 infection.
Borrow P., Bhardwaj N.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Events occurring in acute HIV-1 infection are now recognized to be critical determinants of the subsequent disease course. Innate responses constitute the first line of defence against pathogens, and also play a key role in triggering the early adaptive response; as such, the innate responses activated in acute HIV-1 infection and their contribution to control of viral replication or disease pathogenesis are the focus of much current research. We review recent advances in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: Dendritic cell subsets can play pleiotropic roles in acute HIV-1 infection, with in-vitro studies illustrating that HIV-dendritic cell interactions may have outcomes as diverse as virion destruction, virus dissemination, T-cell triggering or subversion of dendritic cell functions. Natural killer cells can be activated in acute HIV-1 infection, and mounting evidence suggests that they contribute to determining the ensuing course of disease; however, much remains to be learned about how they mediate their effects. SUMMARY: The importance of innate responses as determinants of the outcome of HIV infection is increasingly evident, but more work is needed to understand how innate immunity can be harnessed to combat this infection.