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Substantial protection can be provided against the pre-erythrocytic stages of malaria by vaccination first with an adenoviral and then with an modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) poxviral vector encoding the same ME.TRAP transgene. We investigated whether the two vaccine components adenovirus (Ad) and MVA could be coinjected as a mixture to enhance protection against malaria. A single-shot mixture at specific ratios of Ad and MVA (AdMVA) enhanced CD8 ++ T cell-dependant protection of mice against challenge with Plasmodium berghei. Moreover, the degree of protection could be enhanced after homologous boosting with the same AdMVA mixture to levels comparable with classic heterologous Ad prime-MVA boost regimes. The mixture increased transgene-specific responses while decreasing the CD8++ T cell antivector immunity compared to each vector used alone, particularly against the MVA backbone. Mixed vector immunization led to increased early circulating interferon-γ (IFN-γ) response levels and altered transcriptional microarray profiles. Furthermore, we found that sequential immunizations with the AdMVA mixture led to consistent boosting of the transgene-specific CD8++ response for up to three mixture immunizations, whereas each vector used alone elicited progressively lower responses. Our findings offer the possibility of simplifying the deployment of viral vectors as a single mixture product rather than in heterologous prime-boost regimens. © The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Molecular Therapy

Publication Date





1633 - 1647