Transcriptional response in the peripheral blood of patients infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.
Thompson LJ., Dunstan SJ., Dolecek C., Perkins T., House D., Dougan G., Nguyen TH., Tran TPL., Doan CD., Le TP., Nguyen TD., Tran TH., Farrar JJ., Monack D., Lynn DJ., Popper SJ., Falkow S.
We used microarrays and transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood to investigate the host response of 29 individuals who contracted typhoid fever in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. Samples were taken over a nine month period encompassing acute disease, convalescence, and recovery. We found that typhoid fever induced a distinct and highly reproducible signature in the peripheral blood that changed during treatment and convalescence, returning in the majority of cases to the "normal" profile as measured in healthy uninfected controls. Unexpectedly, there was a strong, distinct signature of convalescence present at day 9 after infection that remained virtually unchanged one month after acute infection and in some cases persisted as long as nine months despite a complete clinical recovery in all patients. Patients who retain the convalescent signature may be genetically or temporarily incapable of developing an effective immune response and may be more susceptible to reinfection, relapse, or the establishment of a carrier state.