A bifunctional enzyme with lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase activities is encoded by the carRP gene of Mucor circinelloides.
Velayos A., Eslava AP., Iturriaga EA.
Using functional analyses in Escherichia coli and Mucor circinelloides, it has been shown that a single M. circinelloides gene (carRP) codes for a protein with two different enzymatic activities, lycopene cyclase and phytoene synthase, which are encoded by independent genes in organisms other than fungi. This gene was identified using complementation tests among different classes of carotenoid mutants of M. circinelloides. The carRP gene product contains two domains: the R domain is located at the N-terminus and determines lycopene cyclase activity; the P domain is located at the C-terminus and displays phytoene synthase activity. The R domain is functional even in the absence of the P domain, while the latter needs the proper R domain conformation to carry out its function. The carRP gene is closely linked to the phytoene dehydrogenase (carB) gene, and the promoter regions of both genes are located within only 446 bp. Northern analyses show a co-ordinated regulation of the expression of both genes by blue light. Several motifs found in this promoter region suggest a bi-directional mode of transcription control.