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The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01(E) provides significant but partial protection from clinical malaria. On in vitro circumsporozoite protein (CSP) peptide stimulation and intra-cellular cytokine staining of whole blood taken from 407 5-17 month-old children in a phase IIb trial of RTS,S/AS01(E), we identified significantly increased frequencies of two CSP-specific CD4+ T cells phenotypes among RTS,S/AS01(E) vaccinees (IFNγ-IL2+TNF- and IFNγ-IL2+TNF+ CD4+ T cells), and increased frequency of IFNγ-IL2-TNF+ CD4+ T cells after natural exposure. All these T cells phenotypes were individually associated with reductions in the risk of clinical malaria, but IFNγ-IL2-TNF+ CD4+ T cells independently predicted reduced risk of clinical malaria on multi-variable analysis (HR = 0.29, 95% confidence intervals 0.15-0.54, p<0.0005). Furthermore, there was a strongly significant synergistic interaction between CSP-specific IFNγ-IL2-TNF+ CD4+ T cells and anti-CSP antibodies in determining protection against clinical malaria (p = 0.002). Vaccination strategies that combine potent cellular and antibody responses may enhance protection against malaria.

Original publication




Journal article


PLoS One

Publication Date





Antibodies, Protozoan, Antibody Formation, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic, Cytokines, Humans, Infant, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Malaria Vaccines, Malaria, Falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum, Proportional Hazards Models, Protozoan Proteins, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Risk, Sporozoites, Vaccination