The validation and utility of a quantitative one-step multiplex RT real-time PCR targeting Rotavirus A and Norovirus
Dung TTN., Phat VV., Nga TVT., My PVT., Duy PT., Campbell JI., Thuy CT., Hoang NVM., Van Minh P., Le Phuc H., Tuyet PTN., Vinh H., Kien DTH., Huy HLA., Vinh NT., Nga TTT., Hau NTT., Chinh NT., Thuong TC., Tuan HM., Simmons C., Farrar JJ., Baker S.
Rotavirus (RoV) and Norovirus (NoV) are the main causes of viral gastroenteritis. Currently, there is no validated multiplex real-time PCR that can detect and quantify RoV and NoV simultaneously. The aim of the study was to develop, validate, and internally control a multiplex one-step RT real-time PCR to detect and quantify RoV and NoV in stool samples. PCR sensitivity was assessed by comparing amplification against the current gold standard, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), on stool samples from 94 individuals with diarrhea and 94 individuals without diarrhea. PCR detected 10% more RoV positive samples than EIA in stools samples from patients with diarrhea. PCR detected 23% more NoV genogroup II positive samples from individuals with diarrhea and 9% more from individuals without diarrhea than EIA, respectively. Genotyping of the PCR positive/EIA negative samples suggested the higher rate of PCR positivity, in comparison to EIA, was due to increased sensitivity, rather than nonspecific hybridization. Quantitation demonstrated that the viral loads of RoV and NoV in the stools of diarrheal patients were an order of magnitude greater than in individuals without diarrhea. This internally controlled real-time PCR method is robust, exhibits a high degree of reproducibility, and may have a greater utility and sensitivity than commercial EIA kits. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.