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For the hundreds of millions of people presently infected with malaria, survival may depend on relatively non-specific immune effector mechanisms. Progress has been made in understanding the anti-parasitic properties of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma and nitric oxide, in defining the parasite toxins that induce tumor necrosis factor-alpha production, and in exploring the role of cytokines and adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria.


Journal article


Curr Opin Immunol

Publication Date





425 - 431