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<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title> <jats:p> <jats:italic>Bacillus subtilis</jats:italic> spores are being used for oral bacteriotherapy and bacterioprophylaxis of gastrointestinal disorders in both humans and animals. Since <jats:italic>B. subtilis</jats:italic> is an aerobic saprophyte, how spores may benefit the gut microbiota is an intriguing question, since other probiotics such as <jats:italic>Lactobacillus</jats:italic> spp. which colonize the gut are anerobes. As a first step in understanding the potential effects of ingesting spores, we have characterized five commercial products. An extensive biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic analysis has revealed that four of these products are mislabeled. Moreover, four of these products showed high levels of antibiotic resistance.</jats:p>

Original publication




Journal article


Applied and Environmental Microbiology


American Society for Microbiology

Publication Date





5241 - 5247