Inducible nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS2A) haplotypes and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection.
Yee LJ., Knapp S., Burgner D., Hennig BJW., Frodsham AJ., Wright M., Thomas HC., Hill AVS., Thursz MR.
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an important molecule involved in the host defense against infectious agents. iNOS is encoded by the NOS2A gene and well-defined haplotypes exist with respect to this gene. We examined whether these haplotypes were associated with the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in 619 Caucasian patients from seven European liver centres. We observed five major haplotypes: (-277A)+(-1026G)+(-1659C): haplotype 1; (-277G)+(-1026T)+(-1659C): haplotype 2; (-277G)+(-1026G)+(-1659C): haplotype 3; (-277G)+(-1026T)+(-1659T): haplotype 4; and (-277A)+(-1026T)+(-1659C): haplotype 5. Distributions of these haplotypes are comparable with those of previous studies. Homozygotes for haplotype 2 or those with haplotypes 2/4 were more likely than those with the 1/1 (wild type) combination to have self-limiting infections (odds ratios (OR)=3.43; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.10-8.0; P=0.0206 and OR=5.15; 95% CI: 1.32-14.32; P=0.0018, respectively). Conversely, carriage of haplotype 1 was associated with the lack of self-limiting disease (OR=0.48; 95% CI: 0.27-0.83; P=0.009). The effect was mainly among males (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.182-0.942; P=0.031 for males, and OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.24-1.37; P=0.136 for women). Carriage of haplotype 1 was not associated with initial response (P=0.268) or sustained response (P>0.171). Combinations of haplotypes 1/4 were more likely to respond to interferon monotherapy in comparison of initial responders to nonresponders (OR=2.25; 95% CI: 1.05-5.68; P=0.0275).