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The impact of cotrimoxazole (CTX) on growth and/or anemia was investigated in 541 human immunodeficiency virus-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naive Zambian children enrolled in the Children with HIV Antibiotic Prophylaxis trial. Compared with children randomized to receive placebo, children randomized to receive CTX had slower decreases in weight-for-age (P=.04) and height-for-age (P=.01), and greater increase in hemoglobin level (P=.01). These findings argue for expanded early CTX use.

Original publication




Journal article


Clin Infect Dis

Publication Date





953 - 956


Adolescent, Anemia, Antimalarials, Body Height, Body Weight, Chemoprevention, Child, Child Development, Child, Preschool, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Infant, Malaria, Male, Placebos, Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination, Zambia