Susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria from ICU patients in UK hospitals to antimicrobial agents.
Johnson AP., Henwood C., Mushtaq S., James D., Warner M., Livermore DM., ICU Study Group None.
Microbiologists in 25 sentinel laboratories were each asked to refer up to 100 clinically-significant Gram-positive bacteria isolated from consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A total of 1595 isolates were collected from patients in 23 hospitals; these included Staphylococcus aureus (47.6%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (30.6%), enterococci (14.3%), pneumococci (2.8%) and other streptococci (3.5%). A few coryneforms, other bacilli and a Nocardia sp. were also collected. Rates of oxacillin resistance among S. aureus and CNS isolates were 59.3 and 78.5%, respectively. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus were not detected, although two isolates (0.3%) were resistant to teicoplanin [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) 8 mg/L]. In contrast, 13.7% of CNS were teicoplanin resistant (MICs 8-32 mg/L) and 1.2% were resistant to vancomycin. Among the enterococci, 72.5% were Enterococcus faecalis and 24.5% were Enterococcus faecium, the remainder including isolates of Enterococcus casseliflavus or Enterococcus gallinarum. Eighteen percent of E. faecium isolates were vancomycin-resistant, compared with only 3% of E. faecalis isolates. Rates of high-level gentamicin resistance in E. faecalis and E. faecium were 40 and 25%, respectively. Nine percent of pneumococci and streptococci were resistant to penicillin, with 7 and 11%, respectively, resistant to erythromycin. None of the isolates showed resistance to linezolid, with the MICs for the entire study population falling in the range of 0.5-4 mg/L.