Immune cell activation in melioidosis: increased serum levels of interferon-gamma and soluble interleukin-2 receptors without change in soluble CD8 protein.
Brown AE., Dance DA., Suputtamongkol Y., Chaowagul W., Kongchareon S., Webster HK., White NJ.
To evaluate immune cell activation in patients with melioidosis, serum samples were assayed for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R), and soluble CD8 protein (sCD8). Forty patients with sepsis (23 fatal cases, 17 survivors) and 13 with localized disease were studied during acute illness; 12 additional patients were studied after discharge while on maintenance antimicrobial therapy. Serum concentrations of IFN-gamma and sIL-2R were greatly elevated, but sCD8 concentrations were not. These levels increased with disease severity and were associated with fatal outcomes. Macrophage activation by high concentrations of the cytokine IFN-gamma may contribute to pathophysiology and death in septicemic patients. Both IFN-gamma and sIL-2R seem to be predictive of outcome in patients with severe melioidosis and may prove useful in detection of relapse.