Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

In 2003 the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a working group and published a set of standard methods for studies measuring nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). The working group recently reconvened under the auspices of the WHO and updated the consensus standard methods. These methods describe the collection, transport and storage of nasopharyngeal samples, as well as provide recommendations for the identification and serotyping of pneumococci using culture and non-culture based approaches. We outline the consensus position of the working group, the evidence supporting this position, areas worthy of future research, and the epidemiological role of carriage studies. Adherence to these methods will reduce variability in the conduct of pneumococcal carriage studies undertaken in the context of pneumococcal vaccine trials, implementation studies, and epidemiology studies more generally so variability in methodology does not confound the interpretation of study findings.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.062

Type

Journal article

Journal

Vaccine

Publication Date

17/12/2013

Volume

32

Pages

165 - 179

Keywords

Carriage, Colonization, Nasopharynx, Pneumococcus, Bacteriological Techniques, Carrier State, Humans, Nasopharynx, Pneumococcal Infections, Sensitivity and Specificity, Serotyping, Specimen Handling, Streptococcus pneumoniae