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OBJECTIVES: Artesunate plus amodiaquine is used for malaria treatment in regions with overlapping HIV endemicity. Co-administration of artesunate/amodiaquine with antiretroviral therapy (ART) may result in drug-drug interactions, but minimal data exist. This study evaluated the impact of nevirapine-based ART, containing a backbone of zidovudine and lamivudine, on the disposition of amodiaquine and its active metabolite, desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ). METHODS: This was an open-label, parallel-group pharmacokinetic comparison between HIV-infected, adult subjects receiving steady-state nevirapine-based ART (n = 10) and ART-naive subjects (control group, n = 11). All subjects received a loose formulation of artesunate/amodiaquine (200/600 mg) daily for 3 days, with serial pharmacokinetic sampling over 96 h following the final dose of artesunate/amodiaquine. Amodiaquine and DEAQ were quantified using a validated HPLC method with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using standard non-compartmental methods. RESULTS: Exposures to both amodiaquine and DEAQ were significantly lower in the nevirapine-based ART group compared with the control group (amodiaquine AUC₀₋₂₄ 145 versus 204 ng·h/mL, P = 0.02; DEAQ AUC₀₋₉₆ 14,571 versus 21,648 ng·h/mL, P < 0.01). The AUCDEAQ/AUC(amodiaquine) ratio was not different between groups (ART group 116 versus control group 102, P = 0.67). CONCLUSIONS: Subjects on nevirapine-based ART had lower exposure to both amodiaquine and DEAQ (28.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Consequently, this may negatively impact the effectiveness of artesunate/amodiaquine in HIV-infected individuals on this ART combination.

Original publication




Journal article


J Antimicrob Chemother

Publication Date





1370 - 1376


antimalarial, drug-drug interactions, pharmacokinetics, Adolescent, Adult, Amodiaquine, Anti-Retroviral Agents, Antimalarials, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, Artemisinins, Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid, Drug Interactions, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Lamivudine, Malaria, Male, Middle Aged, Nevirapine, Nigeria, Plasma, Young Adult, Zidovudine