Immunogenicity, impact on carriage and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine in Kenyan children aged 1-4 years: a randomized controlled trial.
Hammitt LL., Ojal J., Bashraheil M., Morpeth SC., Karani A., Habib A., Borys D., Goldblatt D., Scott JAG.
BACKGROUND: The impact on carriage and optimal schedule for primary vaccination of older children with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) are unknown. METHODS: 600 Kenyan children aged 12-59 months were vaccinated at days 0, 60 and 180 in a double-blind randomized controlled trial according to the following vaccine sequence: Group A: PHiD-CV, PHiD-CV, diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); Group B: PHiD-CV, DTaP, PHiD-CV; Group C: hepatitis A vaccine (HAV), DTaP, HAV. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae was measured at five timepoints. In 375 subjects, serotype-specific responses were measured by 22F-inhibition ELISA and opsonophagocytic killing assays (OPA) one month after vaccination. RESULTS: Following one dose of PHiD-CV, >90% of recipients developed IgG≥0.35 µg/mL to serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 9V and 18C and OPA≥8 to serotypes 4, 7F, 9V, 18C, 23F. After a second dose >90% of recipients had IgG≥0.35 µg/mL to all vaccine serotypes and OPA≥8 to all vaccine serotypes except 1 and 6B. At day 180, carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci was 21% in recipients of two doses of PHiD-CV (Group A) compared to 31% in controls (p = 0.04). Fever after dose 1 was reported by 41% of PHiD-CV recipients compared to 26% of HAV recipients (p<0.001). Other local and systemic adverse experiences were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination of children aged 12-59 months with two doses of PHiD-CV two to six months apart was immunogenic, reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage and was well-tolerated. Administration of PHiD-CV would be expected to provide effective protection against vaccine-type disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01028326.