Klebsiella pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage in rural and urban Vietnam and the effect of alcohol consumption.
Dao TT., Liebenthal D., Tran TK., Ngoc Thi Vu B., Ngoc Thi Nguyen D., Thi Tran HK., Thi Nguyen CK., Thi Vu HL., Fox A., Horby P., Van Nguyen K., Wertheim HFL.
INTRODUCTION: Community acquired K. pneumoniae pneumonia is still common in Asia and is reportedly associated with alcohol use. Oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. However, little is known regarding K. pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage rates and risk factors. This population-based cross-sectional study explores the association of a variety of demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as alcohol consumption with oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae in Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 1029 subjects were selected randomly from age, sex, and urban and rural strata. An additional 613 adult men from a rural environment were recruited and analyzed separately to determine the effects of alcohol consumption. Demographic, socioeconomic, and oropharyngeal carriage data was acquired for each subject. The overall carriage rate of K. pneumoniae was 14.1% (145/1029, 95% CI 12.0%-16.2%). By stepwise logistic regression, K. pneumoniae carriage was found to be independently associated with age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04), smoking (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9), rural living location (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4), and level of weekly alcohol consumption (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.04-2.8). CONCLUSION: Moderate to heavy weekly alcohol consumption, old age, smoking, and living in a rural location are all found to be associated with an increased risk of K. pneumoniae carriage in Vietnamese communities. Whether K. pneumoniae carriage is a risk factor for pneumonia needs to be elucidated.