Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Given the detrimental effects of HIV-associated anemia on morbidity, we determined factors associated with anemia after 96 weeks of antiretroviral therapy (ART) across age groups. An HIV-positive cohort (n=3,580) of children age 5-14, reproductive age adults 18-49, and older adults ≥50 from two randomized trials in Uganda and Zimbabwe were evaluated from initiation of therapy through 96 weeks. We conducted logistic and multinomial regression to evaluate common and differential determinants for anemia at 96 weeks on therapy. Prior to initiation of ART, the prevalence of anemia (age 5-11 <10.5 g/dl, 12-14 <11 g/dl, adult females <11 g/dl, adult males <12 g/dl) was 43%, which decreased to 13% at week 96 (p<0.001). Older adults had a significantly higher likelihood of anemia compared to reproductive age adults (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.44-4.70, p=0.002). Reproductive age females had a significantly higher odds of anemia compared to men at week 96 (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.92-3.40, p<0.001), and particularly a greater odds for microcytic anemia compared to males in the same age group (p=0.001). Other common factors associated with anemia included low body mass index (BMI) and microcytosis; greater increases in CD4 count to week 96 were protective. Thus, while ART significantly reduced the prevalence of anemia at 96 weeks, 13% of the population continued to be anemic. Specific groups, such as reproductive age females and older adults, have a greater odds of anemia and may guide clinicians to pursue further evaluation and management.

Original publication




Journal article


AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses

Publication Date





523 - 530


Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Anemia, Anti-HIV Agents, Child, Child, Preschool, Cohort Studies, Female, HIV Infections, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Sex Factors, Time Factors, Uganda, Young Adult, Zimbabwe