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The development of a highly effective malaria vaccine remains a key goal to aid in the control and eventual eradication of this devastating parasitic disease. The field has made huge strides in recent years, with the first-generation vaccine RTS,S showing modest efficacy in a Phase III clinical trial. The updated 2030 Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap calls for a second generation vaccine to achieve 75% efficacy over two years for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and for a vaccine that can prevent malaria transmission. Whole-parasite immunisation approaches and combinations of pre-erythrocytic subunit vaccines are now reporting high-level efficacy, whilst exciting new approaches to the development of blood-stage and transmission-blocking vaccine subunit components are entering clinical development. The development of a highly effective multi-component multi-stage subunit vaccine now appears to be a realistic ambition. This review will cover these recent developments in malaria vaccinology.

Original publication




Journal article


Adv Parasitol

Publication Date





1 - 49


Adjuvant, Blood-stage, Liver-stage, Malaria, Plasmodium, Sporozoite, Transmission-blocking, Vaccine, Animals, Humans, Immunization, Malaria, Malaria Vaccines, Sporozoites, Vaccines, Subunit