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A recent working group convened by the World Health Organization recommended that time to first or only episode of clinical malaria should be used to evaluate vaccine efficacy in phase III trials. However, calculating vaccine efficacy based on this endpoint misses important aspects of malaria disease and transmission. Here, we discuss the gaps that this approach leaves in predicting the potential public health impact of a vaccine and the challenges faced by vaccine trial designers. We examine the implications of current vaccine trial design on effectiveness studies and the next generation of malaria vaccines.

Original publication




Journal article


Parasite Immunol

Publication Date





574 - 581


Biomarkers, Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic, Humans, Malaria, Malaria Vaccines, Research Design, Treatment Outcome