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Low-income countries typically lag behind industrialised nations, where the introduction of new vaccines is commonly tailored to the pressures of the commercial market. Happily in recent years this paradigm has started to change with the introduction of a univalent meningococcal A conjugate vaccine that is specifically targeted for the prevention of epidemic meningitis in Africa. The declaration of the 2010s as a New Decade of Vaccines, together with Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, provide a strong mandate for a new approach to the development of vaccines for low-income countries, so that there has never been a more exciting time to work in this field. This review considers the opportunities and challenges of developing these new vaccines in the context of innovations in vaccinology, the need to induce protective immunity in the populations at risk and the requirement for strong partnership between the countries that will use these vaccines and different elements of the vaccine industry.

Original publication




Journal article


Semin Immunol

Publication Date





114 - 123


Adjuvants, Conjugate vaccines, GMMA, Genomics, Global health, Immunisation, Low-income countries, Reverse vaccinology, Vaccines, Africa, Animals, Developing Countries, Humans, International Cooperation, Meningococcal Vaccines, Poverty, Vaccines