Malaria in children.
Crawley J., Chu C., Mtove G., Nosten F.
The past decade has seen an unprecedented surge in political commitment and international funding for malaria control. Coverage with existing control methods (ie, vector control and artemisinin-based combination therapy) is increasing, and, in some Asian and African countries, childhood morbidity and mortality from malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are starting to decline. Consequently, there is now renewed interest in the possibility of malaria elimination. But the ability of the parasite to develop resistance to antimalarial drugs and increasing insecticide resistance of the vector threaten to reduce and even reverse current gains. Plasmodium vivax, with its dormant liver stage, will be particularly difficult to eliminate, and access to effective and affordable treatment at community level is a key challenge. New drugs and insecticides are needed urgently, while use of an effective vaccine as part of national malaria control programmes remains an elusive goal. This Seminar, which is aimed at clinicians who manage children with malaria, especially in resource-poor settings, discusses present knowledge and controversies in relation to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of malaria in children.