Glanders … Melioidosis: A Zoonosis and a Sapronosis—“Same Same, but Different”
Fhogartaigh CN., Dance DAB.
© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015. Glanders, caused by infection with Burkholderia mallei, primarily causes infection in equines, but may be transmitted to humans, and thus qualifies as a true zoonosis. Melioidosis Melioidosis is caused by B. pseudomallei, genetically very similar to B. mallei, but which is an environmental saprophyte capable of infecting humans and a wide range of other animals. Good evidence of animal-to-human, or even human-to-human, transmission of melioidosis is lacking, and so it most appropriately referred to as a sapronosis, or at most a sapro-zoonosis. Although rare in Western countries, both micro-organisms have recently gained much interest because of their potential use as bioterrorism agents Bioterrorism. The increasing recognition of melioidosis in humans and recent outbreaks of glanders Glanders in animals have led to their description as emerging or re-emerging diseases. Laboratory-associated infections with both organisms have also occurred, resulting in their categorisation as Hazard Group 3 pathogens. In this chapter we review the epidemiology of animal and human cases of glanders and melioidosis, the evidence for different modes of transmission, pathogenesis and clinical features, diagnosis and treatment, as well as public health and disease control issues.