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Early parasitological diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are key components of worldwide malaria elimination programmes. In general, use of ACTs has been limited to patients with falciparum malaria whereas blood-stage infections with Plasmodium vivax are mostly still treated with chloroquine. We review the evidence for the relative benefits and disadvantages of the existing separate treatment approach versus a unified ACT-based strategy for treating Plasmodium falciparum and P vivax infections in regions where both species are endemic (co-endemic). The separate treatment scenario is justifiable if P vivax remains sensitive to chloroquine and diagnostic tests reliably distinguish P vivax from P falciparum. However, with the high number of misdiagnoses in routine practice and the rise and spread of chloroquine-resistant P vivax, there might be a compelling rationale for a unified ACT-based strategy for vivax and falciparum malaria in all co-endemic regions. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of ACTs for both Plasmodium species are needed to assess the role of these drugs in the control and elimination of vivax malaria.

Original publication

DOI

10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70079-7

Type

Journal article

Journal

Lancet Infect Dis

Publication Date

06/2010

Volume

10

Pages

405 - 416

Keywords

Antimalarials, Artemisinins, Chloroquine, Drug Resistance, Drug Therapy, Combination, Humans, Malaria, Falciparum, Malaria, Vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax