Carbohydrate malabsorption in acutely malnourished children and infants: a systematic review.
Kvissberg MA., Dalvi PS., Kerac M., Voskuijl W., Berkley JA., Priebe MG., Bandsma RHJ.
CONTEXT: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) accounts for approximately 1 million child deaths per year. High mortality is linked with comorbidities, such as diarrhea and pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the extent to which carbohydrate malabsorption occurs in children with SAM. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed and Embase databases were searched. Reference lists of selected articles were checked. DATA EXTRACTION: All observational and controlled intervention studies involving children with SAM in which direct or indirect measures of carbohydrate absorption were analyzed were eligible for inclusion. A total of 20 articles were selected for this review. DATA SYNTHESIS: Most studies reported carbohydrate malabsorption, particularly lactose malabsorption, and suggested an increase in diarrhea and reduced weight gain in children on a lactose-containing diet. As most studies reviewed were observational, there was no conclusive scientific evidence of a causal relationship between lactose malabsorption and a worse clinical outcome among malnourished children. CONCLUSION: The combined data indicate that carbohydrate malabsorption is prevalent in children with SAM. Additional well-designed intervention studies are needed to determine whether outcomes of SAM complicated by carbohydrate malabsorption could be improved by altering the carbohydrate/lactose content of therapeutic feeds and to elucidate the precise mechanisms involved.