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BACKGROUND: The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) disease in HIV-uninfected children after isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for a positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk of TB disease after IPT in young HIV-uninfected children with a positive QFT-GIT result, or household TB contact. METHODS: HIV-uninfected South African infants aged 4-6 months were screened for enrolment in a TB vaccine trial. Baseline household TB contact and positive QFT-GIT result were exclusion criteria, and these infants were referred for IPT. Outcome data are reported for 36 months after IPT referral. RESULTS: Four thousand seven hundred forty-nine infants were screened. Household TB contact was reported in 131 (2.8%) infants; 279 (6.0%) were QFT-GIT positive, and 138 of these 410 infants (34.0%) started IPT. Forty-four cases of TB disease (11.0%) were recorded within 991 child years of observation. TB disease incidence was 4.8 versus 3.6 per 100 child years in household exposed versus QFT-GIT-positive children [incidence rate ratio: 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67-2.88] and 2.4 versus 5.5 per 100 child years in children who received versus did not receive IPT, respectively (incidence rate ratio: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.17-0.96). Adjusted hazard ratio (Cox regression) for TB disease was 0.48 (95% CI: 0.21-1.05) for those who received IPT. CONCLUSION: In young HIV-uninfected children, the effect of IPT on risk of TB disease is similar, whether TB exposure was defined by household contact history or by positive QFT-GIT result. International IPT guidelines for HIV-uninfected children with a positive QFT-GIT result should be updated.

Original publication




Journal article


Pediatr Infect Dis J

Publication Date





1218 - 1222


Antibiotic Prophylaxis, Antitubercular Agents, Cohort Studies, Female, Humans, Infant, Infant, Newborn, Isoniazid, Male, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, South Africa, Tuberculosis