Risk of Disease After Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exposure in Young HIV-uninfected Children.
Luabeya KKA., Tameris MD., Geldenhuys HD., Mulenga H., Van Schalkwyk A., Hughes EJ., Toefey A., Scriba TJ., Hussey G., Mahomed H., McShane H., Landry B., Hanekom WA., Hatherill M.
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) disease in HIV-uninfected children after isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for a positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk of TB disease after IPT in young HIV-uninfected children with a positive QFT-GIT result, or household TB contact. METHODS: HIV-uninfected South African infants aged 4-6 months were screened for enrolment in a TB vaccine trial. Baseline household TB contact and positive QFT-GIT result were exclusion criteria, and these infants were referred for IPT. Outcome data are reported for 36 months after IPT referral. RESULTS: Four thousand seven hundred forty-nine infants were screened. Household TB contact was reported in 131 (2.8%) infants; 279 (6.0%) were QFT-GIT positive, and 138 of these 410 infants (34.0%) started IPT. Forty-four cases of TB disease (11.0%) were recorded within 991 child years of observation. TB disease incidence was 4.8 versus 3.6 per 100 child years in household exposed versus QFT-GIT-positive children [incidence rate ratio: 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67-2.88] and 2.4 versus 5.5 per 100 child years in children who received versus did not receive IPT, respectively (incidence rate ratio: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.17-0.96). Adjusted hazard ratio (Cox regression) for TB disease was 0.48 (95% CI: 0.21-1.05) for those who received IPT. CONCLUSION: In young HIV-uninfected children, the effect of IPT on risk of TB disease is similar, whether TB exposure was defined by household contact history or by positive QFT-GIT result. International IPT guidelines for HIV-uninfected children with a positive QFT-GIT result should be updated.